C2H4 ? Bond Angle? Molecular Geometry? Hybridization?Polar Or Nonpolar?

C2H4 ? Bond Angle? Molecular Geometry? Hybridization?Polar Or Nonpolar?

C2H4 ? Bond Angle? Molecular Geometry? Hybridization?Polar Or Nonpolar?

Ethylene (C2H4) 

C2H4, or ethene or ethylene, is a colourless and flame-resistant gas belonging to the hydrocarbon family. It is among the primary components of the chemical industry. It is used to manufacture various items, including plastics, solvents, and rubber.

Physical Properties

Ethene has a molecular mass of 28.05 mg/mol and a temperature of -103.7degC. It is extremely flammable and can ignite when exposed to sparks or flames. Ethene is much lighter than air and could able to displace oxygen, creating the possibility of death. It is generally stored and transported in compressed gas. This makes it possible for more efficient usage and transportation.


Ethene is made by steam cracking that involves heating hydrocarbons up to high temperatures while using steam. Ethene can also be made from ethanol by processes of dehydration. Ethene is distinguished from other hydrocarbons by different methods, such as fractional distillation and adsorption.


Ethene is a multi-faceted chemical that is utilized in a variety of uses. It is mostly used as a building block in manufacturing polyethylene, the most frequently used plastic worldwide. Ethene is also used to manufacture vinyl acetate, which is used to make adhesives, vinyl resins, and other materials. It can also be used as a solvent in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals as well as a refrigerant for refrigeration and air conditioning systems.

Health And Safety

Ethene is an extremely flammable gas that could pose a significant risk of explosion and fire in the event of improper handling. Therefore, keeping and transporting ethene in safe containers and using ethene-powered equipment in well-ventilated areas is essential. In addition, ethene gas exposure may cause headache, dizziness nausea, and dizziness, and exposure for long periods can cause unconsciousness and possibly death.

Environmental Impact

Ethene is a major cause of climate change because of the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from its production and usage. But, initiatives are currently being taken to minimize the negative environmental impacts of ethene’s production by developing more efficient production methods and utilizing alternative energy resources.

C2H4, or ethene, is a key chemical with many industrial applications. This is also an explosive gas that should be handled with care and could cause health and safety hazards in the event of improper use. Ethene is a major environmental contributor, and efforts are being made to limit its environmental impact. Despite its disadvantages, ethene is still a crucial component of the chemical industry and is vital for manufacturing many chemicals.

Ethylene (C2H4) C2H4 is an odorless, flammable gas with a sweet and sour smell. It is a significant organic compound that is extensively used in the industry.

C2H4 is two bonds between carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. This bond, known as C-H, is not polar because of the almost equal electronegativity between hydrogen and carbon.

Bond Angle

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The gas ethylene (C2H4) is a colorless gas that is flammable and produced by plant cells, which aids in the ripening of fruits. It can also be used as an anesthetic and refrigerant to manufacture chemicals. C2H4’s chemical formula C2H4 has an encapsulated double bond between two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms.

The molecular structure of C2H4 is a trigonal plane shape. The electron geometry, too, follows the trigonal planar shape. This is due to the electron pair repulsion theory of the valence shell. The theory says that electrons bonded hydrogen atoms try to repel one another and, consequently, form the shape of a triangular planar.

Knowing a compound’s molecular structure is crucial since it can help you comprehend its structure and get the most out of it. To determine the compound’s molecular structure, we first determine the number of electrons that are valance in the Lewis structure.

The AXN Method

The AXN method for determining the Lewis structures of the C2H4. This method calculates the number of bonded pairs and one-way pairs inside the Lewis dot structure of a particular molecule.

The AXN method is an easy but powerful tool that assists us in determining the molecular shape of molecules. Also, it determines the structure of the molecular as well the hybridization type and various other factors.

The bonded pair of hydrogen atoms attempt to repel one another, and, as a result, they push one another relative to each other. This is why the structure of C2H4 has a regular form with the same amount of hydrogen atoms per side.

Additionally, it is triangular because each carbon within the C2H4 molecules undergoes sp2 hybridization, and, thanks to hydrogen atoms, the structure appears to be triangular planar.

Hybridization happens when the orbital of one carbon atom can overlap the orbital of a carbon atom to create an sp2-sp2 bond. Following this, the hybrid orbital of sp2 of each carbon atom overlaps with the non-hybridized 2pz orbital of the adjacent carbon atom and creates a pi bond.

Molecular Geometry

Their shapes influence a large portion of molecules’ chemical and physical properties, also referred to in molecular geometry. Molecular geometries depend on various geometric parameters, such as the length of bonds and bond angles, as well as the torsional angles of each atom.


It is believed that the VSEPR model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) is a popular model that predicts 3D molecular geometry. It is believed that electron pairs will organize themselves to reduce repulsion of each other and consequently decide the form of the molecules.

Following the VSEPR model According to the VSEPR model, single electron pairs feel the most dispulsion while bonding electron pair experience the most. This implies that bond electron pairs are likely to try to remain as separate as possible while remaining bonded with the central atom, and electrons from lone pairs are in space within the molecules.

So, molecules with one pair of electrons will have different geometrical structures than those without. This is why the electron-pair repulsion valence shell model is so helpful in finding the geometrical shapes of molecules.

For instance, the single pair electrons of neutral boron exhibit the highest repulsion, and the bond electron pairs of nitrogen have a lower repellence. That means nitrogen molecules have tetrahedral geometry while boron molecules possess linear ones.


Similar to oxygen molecules, oxygen molecules have two bonds, but no lone pairs, meaning the molecule has linear geometry. Carbon atoms of formaldehyde have three bonds but no lone pairs. Therefore, the molecule has tetrahedral geometries, and the nitrogen atoms of water are bound by two bonds but no lone pairs. The boron atoms found in carbon dioxide possess two bonds but no lone pairs. However, they do have linear geometries.


The single pairs of ethene can exert the same repulsion maximum as the bond pair electrons found in ethylene which is why they have the same octahedral geometry. The bond angles of Octahedral molecules are 90 degrees. Therefore, six electron pairs attempt to point at the edges of the molecule, just as four electron pairs of the tetrahedron.

The polarity of a chemical is determined by its steric number. A numerical number determines where a single electron pair will travel within the molecules. For example, Ethene is non-polar because its steric numbers are 1.


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Combining two orbitals of the atomic scale to create an entirely new hybrid orbital is known as hybridization. It is a crucial bond formation process and may result in different molecule shapes. The shape of molecules can be determined by the kind of hybridization and the amount of hybridized atoms.

C2H4 is a hydrocarbon having a double carbon-carbon bond. It is utilized to manufacture significant organic compounds like polyethylene and ethylene. The chemical formula for C2H4 is H2C=CH2, and it has an odor defined as “sweet and musky.”

One bond called s and one called a p are created in C2H4. The overlap creates these bonds in half-filled orbitals containing one unpaired electron. The number of s-bonds formed per carbon is the same as that of p-bonds formed per hydrogen.

Sp2 Hybridization

If sp2 hybridization occurs in the 2s orbital, it combines two of the three orbitals of 2p and is designated with 2px and 2py. The three sp2 resulting hybrid orbitals are placed in trigonal planar geometries called VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair theory of repulsion).

Hybridization could be nonpolar or polar. In a polar system, SP2 hybridized orbitals possess more repulsion than SP3 hybridized orbitals, and the particles are more stable in bond formation.

In a nonpolar system, the sp2 hybridized atoms possess less repulsion than the sp3 atoms and are less stable in bond formation.

For instance, in C2H4, a hydrocarbon with an ionic double bond between carbons, the sp2 hybridized p orbital has an unpaired electron. A pi-bond is formed when the sp2 hybridized orbital is filled by an unpaired s orbital. Therefore, the sp2 hybridized PZ and the sp2 hybridized orbitals have the same energy levels. This is why they are described as equivalent.

Another illustration of hybridization is the carbon atom hybridized with sp3. When sp3 hybridized orbitals get coupled, the sp3-hybridized elements can be arranged in a tetrahedral arrangement. The tetrahedral arrangement is the result of attraction between the sp3 hybridized molecules.

Polar Or NonPolar

If a molecule is either not polar or polar, it depends on the shape of the bonds. The polarity of bonds is determined through the space between the centers of the positive and negative charges, which results in an in-between dipole moment that is non-zero.


If two atoms have been covalently connected, they have an electronegativity differential greater than 0.4 and form a polar bond. This is why you will hear the term “polar chemistry.”

However, you’ll also observe that some molecules aren’t non-polar. This happens because they are arranged their bonds symmetrically so that their dipole moments don’t cancel one another out. Examples include methane and carbon dioxide gas.

Water is one example of a polar molecule because it contains two O-H bonds with bent (nonlinear) geometry. There are two O-H bonds. O atoms have a higher electronegative charge than hydrogen atoms, which means there’s an uneven distribution of electrons along the bond between them. The oxygen atoms have a slightly higher positive charge, while hydrogen atoms have an inverse charge.

This leads to a dipole development in the O and H atoms. As a result, the O molecules have negative charges at one point of the bond and a positive charge on the opposite side.

Another Polar molecule includes hydrogen fluoride HF. The molecule is constructed from one polar connection between the fluorine and hydrogen atoms. Through this polar bond, electrons are moved toward the fluorine atom. Therefore, it has a lower electronegative value than hydrogen.

The polar bonds result in oppositely charged dipoles, just like the poles of magnets. The polarity of bonds determines the degree to which it draws other compounds.

The polarity of bonds will affect how the compound behaves when it is in solutions. If a compound isn’t in polarity, it reacts negatively to any presence of water and other solvents.

A polymer, however, will react positively with any presence of water and other solvents. This is due to its negative charge. Water molecules attract positive charges of the other molecules.


What is the bond angle of C2H4?

The bond angle of C2H4, also known as ethene, is approximately 121.7 degrees.

What is the molecular geometry of C2H4?

The molecular geometry of C2H4 is planar. This means that the molecule is flat and all of the atoms are in the same plane.

What is the hybridization of C2H4?

The hybridization of C2H4 is sp2. This means that the carbon atoms in the molecule are each bonded to three other atoms and have one unhybridized p orbital.

Is C2H4 polar or nonpolar?

C2H4 is a nonpolar molecule. This is because the molecule is symmetric and the electronegativity of the carbon and hydrogen atoms are very similar, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrons.

What is the bond order of C2H4?

The bond order of C2H4 is 1.5. This is because each carbon atom is bonded to two other atoms (one carbon and one hydrogen) with a double bond, resulting in a bond order of 2. However, since there are two carbon atoms, the bond order is divided by two.

What are some common uses of C2H4?

C2H4 is a common industrial chemical used in the production of plastics, textiles, and other materials. It is also used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches. Additionally, it can be used as a plant hormone to promote fruit ripening and stimulate plant growth.