How To Write Blood Group?
Blood groups refer to the classification system used to categorize blood based on the presence or absence of specific proteins or antigens on the surface of red blood cells. The most common blood grouping system is the ABO system, which classifies blood into four types – A, B, AB, and O. Another important blood grouping system is the Rh system, which classifies blood into Rh-positive or Rh-negative.
There are four main blood groups (types of blood) – A, B, AB, and O. Your blood group is determined by the genes you inherit from your parents.
Each group can be either RhD positive or RhD negative, meaning eight blood groups exist.
Antibodies And Antigens
Blood comprises red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in a plasma liquid. Antibodies and antigens identify your blood group in the blood.
Antibodies are proteins found in plasma. They’re part of your body’s natural defenses. They recognize foreign substances, such as germs, and alert your immune system, which destroys them.
Antigens are protein molecules found on the surface of red blood cells.
Understanding Blood Grouping Systems
As mentioned earlier, the ABO and Rh systems are the two most common blood grouping systems.
The ABO system
The ABO system defines four main blood groups:
- blood group A – has A antigens on the red blood cells with anti-B antibodies in the plasma
- blood group B – has B antigens with anti-A antibodies in the plasma
- blood group O – has no antigens, but both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma
- blood group AB – has both A and B antigens, but no antibodies
Blood group O is the most common blood group. Almost half of the UK population (48%) has blood group O.
Receiving blood from the wrong ABO group can be life-threatening. For example, suppose someone with group B is given group A blood. In that case, their anti-A antibodies will attack the group A cells.
This is why group A blood must never be given to someone with group B blood and vice versa.
As group O red blood cells do not have any A or B antigens, they can safely be given to any other group.
The Rh system
Red blood cells sometimes have another antigen, a protein known as the RhD antigen. If this is present, your blood group is RhD-positive. If it’s absent, your blood group is RhD negative.
This means you can be 1 of 8 blood groups:
- An RhD positive (A+)
- An RhD negative (A-)
- B RhD positive (B+)
- B RhD negative (B-)
- O RhD positive (O+)
- O RhD negative (O-)
- AB RhD positive (AB+)
- AB RhD negative (AB-)
About 85% of the UK population is RhD positive (36% have O+, the most common type).
In most cases, O RhD negative blood (O-) can safely be given to anyone. It’s often used in medical emergencies when the blood type is unknown.
It’s safe for most recipients because it does not have any A, B, or RhD antigens on the surface of the cells and is compatible with every other ABO and RhD blood group.
How To Write Your Blood Group?
Writing your blood group accurately is crucial in various situations, including medical emergencies and blood donation. Here are some guidelines on how to write your blood group accurately:
- Use the Correct Terminology
When writing your blood group, using the correct terminology is essential. For instance, use the terms “blood type A,” “blood type B,” “blood type AB,” and “blood type O” when referring to the ABO system. Similarly, use the terms “Rh-positive” and “Rh-negative” when referring to the Rh system.
- Capitalize the Blood Group
When writing your blood group, it’s essential to capitalize the letters indicating your blood type. For example, if your blood type is A, you should write it as “Blood type A” or “A positive” for Rh-positive blood.
- Use Symbols
Another way to write your blood group is by using symbols. The ABO system uses the symbols A, B, AB, and O to indicate the different blood types. For example, if your blood type is A, you can write it as “Blood type A” or “A+.” Similarly, the Rh system uses the symbols “+” and “-” to indicate Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood, respectively.
- Avoid Using Ambiguous Terms
When writing your blood group, avoid using ambiguous terms such as “unknown” or “undetermined.” These terms can create confusion and lead to incorrect medical treatment in an emergency.
- Update Your Medical Records
It’s important to keep your medical records up-to-date with your blood group. This will ensure that medical professionals have accurate information in case of a medical emergency or procedure.
Blood Group Test
Your red cells are mixed with different antibody solutions to work out your blood group. If, for example, the solution contains anti-B antibodies and you have B antigens on your cells (you’re blood group B), they will clump together.
If the blood does not react to anti-A or anti-B antibodies, it’s group O. A series of tests with different types of antibodies can be used to identify your blood group.
If you have a blood transfusion – where blood is taken from one person and given to another – your blood will be tested against a sample of donor cells that contain ABO and RhD antigens. If there’s no reaction, donor blood with the same ABO and RhD type can be used.
Pregnant women are always given a blood group test. This is because if the mother is RhD-negative. Still, the child has inherited RhD-positive blood from the father, it could cause complications if left untreated.
RhD-negative women of childbearing age should always only receive RhD-negative blood.
Most people can give blood, but only 1 in 25 people do. You can donate blood if you:
- are fit and healthy
- weigh at least 50kg (7st 12lb)
- are 17-66 years old (or 70 if you’ve given blood before)
- are over 70 and have given blood in the last two years
How do you write blood group A positive?
Blood group A positive is written as “A+”. The letter “A” represents the A antigen on the surface of red blood cells, and the “+” symbol indicates the presence of the Rh factor.
How do you write blood group O negative?
Blood group O negative is written as “O-“. The letter “O” represents the absence of A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells, and the “-” symbol indicates the absence of the Rh factor.
How do you write blood group AB positive?
Blood group AB positive is written as “AB+”. The letters “AB” represent the presence of both A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells, and the “+” symbol indicates the presence of the Rh factor.
How do you write blood group B negative?
Blood group B negative is written as “B-“. The letter “B” represents the B antigen on the surface of red blood cells, and the “-” symbol indicates the absence of the Rh factor.
How do you write blood group ABO?
Blood group ABO refers to the four blood types: A, B, AB, and O. A person’s blood type is determined by the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.
Why is it important to know your blood group?
Knowing your blood group is important for medical reasons, such as blood transfusions, organ transplants, and in case of emergency situations where blood loss requires immediate attention. Additionally, some people may experience mild to severe reactions if they receive blood that is incompatible with their blood type, which is why it is important to know your blood group.