Similarities and Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Similarities and Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Similarities and Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Cell Membrane: A lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that serves as a selective barrier between the internal and exterior environment of the cell, is present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Genetic Material: DNA serves as the foundation for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells’ genetic information.

This genetic material is required to control and instruct cellular activity through the transcription and translation of genetic information into RNA and proteins, respectively. The production of protein, which is necessary for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells to operate, is facilitated by ribosomes.


Both prokaryotic and eukaryotes have nuclei. The prokaryotic nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, while eukaryotes have a true nucleus. Both cells contain various organelles and are responsible for specific cellular functions. A prokaryotic cell can be divided into a nucleus and an organelle.

Prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells contain a cell wall. The prokaryotic cell wall is thick and rigid and protects the interior of the cell from the outside environment. For example, most bacteria have a peptidoglycan-like cell wall, whereas archaeal cells have a cell membrane called the plasma membrane. In addition, Archaea and bacteria have cell walls composed of proteins and pseudopeptidoglycan.

The prokaryotic nucleus contains the genome (DNA) of a cell. In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged tightly into chromosomes, and these chromosomes undergo a process called meiosis. Prokaryotic cells typically have a single circular chromosome, although recent studies have shown that some prokaryotes have up to four chromosomes, including Vibrio cholerae.

A double membrane encloses the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is surrounded by the nucleoid region, which contains DNA and ribosomes. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and have a membrane-less nucleoid region. Both cells have DNA, although prokaryotes have a single looped chromosome.

It has been proposed that a viral factor may have been responsible for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. However, further discussion on the role of viruses in nucleus evolution is needed. The medusa virus scenario could profoundly impact our understanding of eukaryogenesis and may provide a basis for further discussion on the role of viruses in eukaryotic nucleus evolution.

Main Similarities and Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


  1. They can be classified as single-celled organisms
  2. They have nuclei that contain copies of their DNA
  3. They have a definite nuclear membrane
  4. Their cytoplasm contains ribosomes to make proteins.


  1. Prokaryotic cells have a membrane separating the cytoplasm from the environment, and they lack a cell wall while eukaryotic cells do not.
  2. Eukaryotic cells contain organelles that prokaryotes do not such as mitochondria and vacuoles. Prokaryotes also do not possess digestive or respiratory systems.
  3. Eukaryotic cells can replicate and divide via binary fission in the absence of any other signals such as cell death or mitosis induction, whereas prokaryotes must undergo cell division to replicate via binary fission.
  4. Eukaryotes also contain mitochondrial DNA whereas Prokaryotes are just made of DNA without any organelles.
  5. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and membranes divided into organelles, surrounded by cell walls.
  6. Eukaryotic cells have nuclei, which contain chromosomes and the genetic information for each cell. A prokaryote is an organism whose cells lack nuclei and other membrane-bound structures. Nuclei are enclosed within the membranes of eukaryotic cells.

Cell wall

There are several differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but the basic principles are similar. Each cell wall is surrounded by a membrane, which is selectively permeable and allows specific molecules in and certain molecules out. The two types of cell walls are also similar in their ability to maintain internal homeostasis. Gif Maker 2022 08 20T063532.850

Eukaryotic cells are more significant and contain true nuclei, while prokaryotes lack these structures. Both cells contain organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, which perform metabolic functions. In eukaryotes, these structures were created by endosymbiotic bacteria. Both cells have cell walls, and prokaryotes generally have thinner cell walls.

In addition to cell walls, the cytoplasm is common to both types of cells. Both types have ribosomes, a structure that helps proteins and carbohydrates move through them. Eukaryotic cells are also enclosed in a membrane, which makes them resistant to external factors. This membrane is a significant difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

As we previously discussed, the cell walls of bacteria and eukaryotic cells are composed of different substances. For example, the cell wall of prokaryotes is made of mucopeptides and peptidoglycans, while that of eukaryotes is composed of cellulose. However, both types of cells have a cell membrane with a mesh-like structure.

Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus, a large vacuole, and organelles that carry out specific functions. Organelles in eukaryotic cells serve specific functions, such as encoding information, releasing energy, and facilitating cellular processes. A cell’s membrane can be divided into several compartments, each with a specific function.


Both prokaryotic and eukaryotes contain organelles. While both types share genetic material and cell membranes, they differ significantly in the organs they contain. Prokaryotes also possess chemical noses and thin extensions of the plasma membrane, called cytoskeletons. In addition, eukaryotes have organelles known as flagella and cilia, which perform motility and movement of matter outside the cell.

Both prokaryotic and eukaryotes contain a nucleus. Both types of cells are classified as prokaryotes and eukaryotes based on their cell structure. Prokaryotes consist of single-celled organisms in the Bacteria and Archaea domains. They are the most primitive and superficial cells.

The eukaryotic cell has a nucleus in the center, and most prokaryotic cells also have plasmids and circular pieces of DNA. Prokaryotes also have flagella and pilus, which help in locomotion. Prokaryotes are the members of the kingdom Monera, while eukaryotes are larger and more complex than prokaryotes.

All cells need energy and amino acids. These amino acids are used in metabolic processes and build proteins. Organelles are essential for the structure of cells, which is vital for life. These organelles are often visible before and after mitosis. Understanding the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will help you identify the parts of a cell in different states, reducing the chance of mistakenly labeling something as an artifact.

In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope and surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, which helps transport materials. In addition to the nucleus, eukaryotes have ribosomes, a large protein-making complex that transports substances throughout the cell. Likewise, eukaryotes contain mitochondria, which convert sugar into ATP and other vital substances.

Growth rate

Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, and their surface-to-volume ratio is 100 times larger than eukaryotic ones. The large surface area favors faster exchanges with the surrounding milieu, and their contents are highly concentrated. They also lack internal compartments. These two factors translate into accelerated metabolism, growth, and multiplication. This characteristic has direct consequences for the ecology and behavior of these organisms.

Prokaryotic cells have similar structures, including a cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, ribosomes, and a central zone of super-coiled circular DNA, or nucleoid, which contains genetic information. Typical prokaryotic cells also harbor one to seventeen smaller replicons that move from one strain to another. This division of the body of the organism is known as heterosis.

Both Pro and Syn synchronize cell division after dusk. These cells are similar in size and photosynthesis but have different growth rates. In addition, plastidic protists grow slower than cyanobacteria, implying that eukaryotic cells have lower growth rates than their phytoplanktonic counterparts. Growth rate differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells may be related to their different energetic requirements.

A cytoskeleton is essential for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. These cells do not undergo mitosis but do undergo cytokinesis. Prokaryotes have a crucial role played by a protein called FtsZ. FtsZ is similar to tubulin, a building block of mitotic spindle fibers in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic FtsZ protein ring directs partition between the nucleoid and triggers recruitment of other proteins and cell wall materials.


The size of prokaryotic and eukaryotes differ in several ways. The former is a single-celled organism, while the latter is a multicellular organism with multiple organelles and a nucleus. In addition, they possess a protective capsule to protect their contents from phagocytosis, while the latter also has an attachment pilus. The two types of cells share similar requirements, but their size and shape are not comparable.

Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They contain organelles and are about double or even 1,000 times larger. The size of a single eukaryotic cell varies between 10 and 100 micrometers. The size of an adult human cell is approximately three times larger than that of bacteria. The nucleus, ribosomes, and organelles are the cellular structures that contain genetic material.

The nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells contains two lipid membranes that contain the nucleus. DNA is the genetic material of eukaryotic cells. A nucleus is the central region of the eukaryotic cell. Prokaryotic cells lack this structure. Instead, their DNA is contained in a membrane-less region called the nucleoid.

While the size of prokaryotic cells is smaller than those of eukaryotes, they share many structural and functional similarities. For instance, both cells contain organelles with specific cellular functions, including DNA, ribosomes, and chloroplasts. Furthermore, the two types of cells share several metabolic pathways and photosynthesis. Finally, they are both capable of regenerating and replicating.

Prokaryotic cells also contain mesosomes, which assist with cellular respiration. Prokaryotes also contain circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Pilus and flagella help the cells move. Prokaryotes include all members of the Kingdom Monera. On the other hand, Eukaryotes are more significant than prokaryotes and makeup almost all of the kingdoms except the monera.