Which Of The Following Best Represents The Reaction Between Sulfuric Acid And Calcium Hydroxide?
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a strong acid, while calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) serves as its strong base. When these two substances combine, a double displacement reaction occurs; in this reaction, the positive and negative ions from both reactants exchange places to form new compounds.
The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide can be represented by the following equation:
H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O.
In this equation, H2SO4 represents sulfuric acid, Ca(OH)2 signifies calcium hydroxide, CaSO4 signifies calcium sulfate, and H2O signifies water.
When sulfuric acid is added to calcium hydroxide, hydrogen ions (H+) from the acid combine with hydroxide ions (OH-) from the base to form water (H2O). This initial step can be represented as follows:
H2SO4 + 2OH = SO42- + 2H2O.
Next, the sulfate ion (SO42-) from the acid reacts with the calcium ion (Ca2+) from the base to form calcium sulfate (CaSO4) – a white solid that precipitates out of the solution. This is known as step two of the reaction and can be represented as follows:
Ca2+ + SO42- -> CaSO4.
How to Balance:
Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 – CaSO4 + H2O
Word Equation: Calcium hydroxide + Sulfuric acid – Calcium sulfate + Water
Chemical Reaction Type: For this chemical reaction, we have a neutralization reaction.
Balancing Strategies: In this reaction, calcium hydroxide and sulfuric acid come together in a neutralization reaction.
Be sure to count all hydrogen atoms on the reactant side of the equation. When balancing chemical equations, we should aim for each type of atom in equal numbers on both sides.
Only adjust the coefficients (the numbers located before substances).
Never alter the subscripts (small numbers after elements) without prior authorization.
The Chemical Reaction:
Chemical reactions are an integral part of life and are essential in many natural and man-made processes. One such chemical reaction that deserves special consideration is the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide. This article aims to provide an in-depth explanation of this reaction, its mechanism, and its applications.
What is Sulfuric Acid?
Sulfuric acid, also known as oil of vitriol, is a highly corrosive and dense liquid with the chemical formula H2SO4. It finds widespread application in chemical industries for producing fertilizers, detergents, and dyes; additionally, it’s employed as a strong acid in batteries for pH control in various industrial processes and explosive production.
What Is Calcium Hydroxide?
Calcium hydroxide, slaked lime, or calcium hydroxide, is a white crystalline solid with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It’s produced by adding water to calcium oxide (commonly referred to as quicklime). Calcium hydroxide finds widespread application in construction projects both as a cement additive and for wastewater treatment.
Sulfuric Acid and Calcium Hydroxide in Reaction
Sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide undergo a double displacement reaction, commonly called an acid-base reaction. This chemical equation describes this reaction:
H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O.
In this reaction, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) to form calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and water (H2O). Calcium sulfate is an insoluble white solid that precipitates out of the solution, leaving behind a clear and colorless water solution.
Mechanism of Reaction
Sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide undergo a two-step reaction. In the initial stage, sulfuric acid dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and sulfate ions (SO42-).
H2SO4 – 2H+ + SO42-
In the second step, calcium hydroxide dissociates into calcium ions (Ca2+) and hydroxide ions (OH-):
Ca(OH)2 – Ca2+ + 2OH-
As the hydrogen ions from sulfuric acid react with hydroxide ions from calcium hydroxide, they combine to form water:
2H+ + 2OH- – 2H2O
Calcium ions from calcium hydroxide react with sulfuric acid to form calcium sulfate:
Applications of the Reaction
The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide has numerous applications in industry. Some of the most noteworthy include:
- Waste Water Treatment: Calcium hydroxide is often employed in wastewater treatment to eliminate impurities and neutralize acids. The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide helps adjust the pH level of liquefied wastewater back toward neutral.
- Fertilizer Production: Sulfuric acid is an integral element in fertilizer production. Through a reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate is formed, which then goes on to be included as part of fertilizers.
- Cement Production: Calcium hydroxide is used as a cement additive in the construction industry. When sulfuric acid reacts with calcium hydroxide, it forms calcium sulfate, which acts as a setting retarder.
- Desulfurization of Fuels: Sulfuric acid is used to desulfurize fuels such as coal, oil, and gas to reduce their sulfur content. Through a reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate is formed – an efficient sorbent for removing sulfur compounds from these sources.
- Chemical Synthesis: The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide is widely employed in chemical synthesis to create various chemicals, such as calcium bisulfite, calcium sulfite, and calcium sulfide.
Sulfuric acid is a hazardous and highly corrosive substance, so it should be cautiously handled. Here are some safety measures to take when handling sulfuric acid:
- When handling sulfuric acid, wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves, goggles, and a lab coat.
- Store sulfuric acid in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances such as bases and organic materials.
- Always add sulfuric acid to water, not vice versa, to prevent splashes and overheating.
- In case of skin or eye contact, flush the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical assistance promptly.
Understanding The Reaction Mechanism:
Sulfuric acid, commonly used in industrial processes, and calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) are white powder materials used in construction and agriculture. When these two compounds come together, a chemical reaction generates calcium sulfate, water, and heat.
Chemical Equation of Reaction
The chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide can be written as follows:
H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O.
In this equation, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) to form calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and water (H2O). This reaction is exothermic, meaning it releases heat energy.
Understanding the Reaction Mechanism
The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide takes place in several steps, as follows:
Step 1: Formation of Sulfuric Acid
In the initial step, sulfuric acid acts as a Bronsted-Lowry acid and donates a proton (H+) to an OH- ion from calcium hydroxide, creating bisulfate ion (HSO4-) and water.
Step 2: Formulation of Calcium Sulfate
Schritt 1: Combine H2SO4 with anhydrous ammonia solution and then add H2O.
In the second step, bisulfate reacts with another hydroxide ion to form water and sulfate (SO42-) ion (Ca2+). Finally, calcium ions from calcium hydroxide combine with this sulfate ion to form calcium sulfate.
Step 3: Neutralization of Remaining Acid
In the final step, any remaining acid is neutralized by the hydroxide ions from calcium hydroxide to form water.
H+ + OH- – H2O
In conclusion, the reaction mechanism between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide can be summarized as follows:
H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O.
Factors Affecting Reaction
Some factors can influence the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide, such as:
- The concentration of Reactants: As the concentration of reactants increases, the rate of reaction accelerates because there are more particles available for reaction with each other.
- Temperature: The reaction is exothermic and generates heat, which can accelerate its progress. However, at high temperatures, this reaction could become too violent and hazardous to continue.
- Surface Area: Grinding reactants into a fine powder can increase their surface area, increasing their contact time with each other. This increases the rate of reaction.
- Catalysts: Certain substances, such as acids or bases, can act as catalysts and accelerate the reaction rate by providing an alternate pathway.
Applications of the Reaction
The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide has numerous applications in various industries, such as:
- Agriculture: Calcium sulfate, one of the products of this reaction, is often applied as a soil amendment to improve soil structure and fertility.
- Construction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an adhesive for mortar and concrete.
- Water Treatment: Sulfuric acid can adjust water pH, while calcium hydroxide helps remove impurities from water by forming insoluble precipitates.
- Chemical Industry: Sulfuric acid is a versatile and widely used industrial acid, and the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide is used in various chemical processes, such as the production of gypsum and titanium dioxide.
The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide can be hazardous if safety precautions aren’t taken. Sulfuric acid is highly corrosive and reactive, resulting in severe chemical burns or eye damage; calcium hydroxide acts as an irritant, too, causing skin and eye irritation.
When handling sulfuric acid, it is necessary to wear protective equipment like gloves, goggles, and a lab coat. The acid should be handled carefully and poured slowly into a solution to avoid splashes or spills. Furthermore, mixing acid with water slowly and carefully helps avoid an exothermic reaction.
Calcium hydroxide must be handled with extreme care and protective equipment. The powder can irritate if it comes in contact with skin or eyes, so wearing gloves and goggles is recommended. In case of contact between the skin or eyes, wash the affected area thoroughly with water.
In case of accidental exposure or ingestion of sulfuric acid or calcium hydroxide, it is imperative to seek medical help immediately.
Significance In Different Industries:
Chemicals form the backbone of many industries, and many rely on certain chemicals for efficient operations. Two essential chemicals that play a significant role in these processes are sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide. In this article, we’ll explore their significance across various industries.
Significance of Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid is a highly reactive and corrosive acid with several uses in various industries. Let us explore its significance across various sectors.
The chemical industry is the major consumer of sulfuric acid. It’s used in several processes, such as fertilizers, detergents, dyes, and pigments. Furthermore, it’s used in synthetic fiber production like nylon, rayon, and polyester.
Sulfuric acid is used in producing lead-acid batteries, which are widely used in automobiles to power the starter motor and ignition system.
Sulfuric acid is widely employed in the mining industry to extract metals like copper, zinc, and nickel from their ores. It helps leach these precious metals out of their ore deposits.
Sulfuric acid is employed in the food industry to produce additives like citric acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid. These acids help enhance the flavor of products while adding moisture and shelf-life.
Sulfuric acid is utilized in the pharmaceutical industry to make drugs such as aspirin, antibiotics, and antacids.
Significance Of Calcium Hydroxide:
Calcium hydroxide, or slaked lime, has several applications in various industries. Let us examine the significance of calcium hydroxide within these various sectors.
Calcium hydroxide is widely employed in the construction industry to make cement. Additionally, it’s an essential element of mortar and plaster mix.
Calcium hydroxide is employed in the water treatment process to eliminate impurities from water. It raises its pH level, which causes impurities like heavy metals and bacteria to settle out.
Calcium hydroxide is used in agriculture to treat acidic soil. As a soil amendment, it raises the pH level of the soil to make it more alkaline and encourages plants to thrive.
Calcium hydroxide is employed in the food industry to make products such as tortillas, corn chips, and pickles. Additionally, it serves as a preservative.
Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the dental industry as dental cement, filling cavities, and temporary filling material.
Which Equation Represents The Correct Net Ionic Equation For The Reaction Between Caoh2 And H2so4?
The balanced equation for the reaction between calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is:
Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 = CaSO4 + 2H2O
To write the net ionic equation, we need only include those ions involved in the reaction. Since CaSO4 is precipitate and not ionized, it’s excluded from consideration in this example.
The net ionic equation for the reaction between calcium hydroxide and sulfuric acid is:
Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + 2H+(aq) – SO42-(aq) – 2H2O(l) + CaSO4(s).
The net ionic equation illustrates that calcium ion (Ca2+) and sulfate ion (SO42-) combine to form CaSO4, while hydroxide ion (OH-) and hydrogen ion (H+) form water (H2O).
Calcium Hydroxide Sulfuric Acid Word Equation
The word equation for the reaction between calcium hydroxide and sulfuric acid provides the reactants and products in verbatim. In this instance, calcium hydroxide, commonly known as slaked lime, reacts with sulfuric acid, a strong, corrosive acid used in industrial processes. When these reactants come together, they create calcium sulfate – a white solid that precipitates out of solution – along with water.
The balanced chemical equation for the reaction provides more detail on both the reactants and products, as well as its stoichiometry. In this instance, one molecule of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) reacts with one molecule of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to form one molecule of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and two molecules of water (H2O).
This reaction is an acid-base reaction, where sulfuric acid donates hydrogen ions (H+) to calcium hydroxide, which acts as a base that accepts hydrogen ions and releases hydroxide ions (OH-). When these are combined with hydrogen ions from sulfuric acid to form water, any remaining ions combine to form calcium sulfate, which is insoluble in water and precipitates out of the solution.
What is the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide called?
Answer: The reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide is called a neutralization reaction.
What is the chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide?
Answer: The chemical equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide is H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 → CaSO4 + 2H2O.
What is the pH of the resulting solution after the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide?
Answer: The pH of the resulting solution after the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide will be neutral, which is a pH of 7.
What is the role of sulfuric acid in the reaction with calcium hydroxide?
Answer: Sulfuric acid acts as the acid in the neutralization reaction with calcium hydroxide, providing the H+ ions that combine with the OH- ions from calcium hydroxide to form water.
What is the role of calcium hydroxide in the reaction with sulfuric acid?
Answer: Calcium hydroxide acts as the base in the neutralization reaction with sulfuric acid, providing the OH- ions that combine with the H+ ions from sulfuric acid to form water.
What are some common applications of neutralization reactions in chemistry?
Answer: Neutralization reactions have a wide range of applications in chemistry, including in the production of fertilizers, in the treatment of acidic wastewater, and in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals.